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School Kindness Scale for Children Results

Results found in the School Kindness Scale for Children found in Psychology in Schools Journal for a full summary, review the School of Kindness Scale.

School Kindness Scale

Directions: Circle the number that matches how you feel for each sentence

 How true is each statement for you?  Disagree a lot Disagree a little Don't agree or Disagree Agree a little Agree a lot
1. The adults in my school model kindness 1 2 3 4 5
2. Kindness happens regularly in my classroom 1 2 3 4 5
3. Kindness happens regularly in my school 1 2 3 4 5
4. My teacher is kind 1 2 3 4 5
At my school, I am encouraged to be kind 1 2 3 4 5

 

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Table 1. 
Factor Loadings of the Items of the School Kindness Scale

 Item Factor 1
The adults in my school model kindness .69
Kindness happens regularly in my classroom .66
Kindness happens regularly in my school .62
My teacher is kind .67
At my school, I am encouraged to be kind .55

 

 

 

 

 

 

Results 

We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), reliability testing, and scale analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the SKS. We also examined the associations of the SKS with other self- and teacher-report measures to examine evidence of construct validity.

Exploratory Factor Analysis

We examined the factor structure of the SKS using EFA. The EFA was performed in MPlus (version 6; Muth´en & Muth´en, 2010) on the polychoric correlation matrices to accommodate the Likert-type data, with the mean and variance adjusted weighted-least squares estimation method. The first eigenvalue in our data was 2.57; the second eigenvalue was 0.85, indicating unidimensionality. The unidimensional model also showed adequate fit, with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.07 (cf. Vandenberg & Lance, 2000). The factor loadings of the items are provided in Table 1. All items showed high loadings (> .50) on the factor, ranging between .55 and .69.

 

Table 2. 
Descriptive Statistics for the Study Measures 

Variable Name M SD Skew Kurtosis N Min. to Max
Self-reported variables





School kindness 4.03 .66 -1.02 1.17 1749 1.00-5.00
General self-concept 4.06 .61 -1.03 1.64 1750 1.00-5.00
School self-concept  3.56 .73 -.45 -.02 1750 1.00-5.00
Optimism 3.65 .61 -.75 .45 1741 1.00-4.89
Academic self-efficacy 3.86 .75 -.91 .600 1746 1.00-5.00
Happiness 5.31 1.23 -.93 .61  1739 1.00-7.00
Pro-social goals 4.00 .59 -.81 1.00 1752 1.00-5.00
Social responsibility goals 4.26 .55 -1.08 1.87 1750 1.00-5.00
Life satisfaction 4.15 .83 -1.36 1.63 1753 1.00-5.00
Teacher-reported variables            
 Empathy 3.15 .71 -.72 .04 1746 1.00-4.00
Social Skills  3.30 .78 -1.10 .39 1713 1.00-4.00
Peer acceptance 2.99 .91 -.55 -.71 1745 1.00-4.00

Note: Min = minimum; max. = maximum. Descriptive statistics are based on the average scale scores. 

 

Table 3.
Means, Standard Deviations, and Sample Sizes for the School Kindness Scale by Grade

 Grade M SD n
 4 4.23 .61 257
5 4.10 .62 658
6 4.02 .61 524
7 4.03 .52 109
8 3.57 .82 205

  

Table 4.
Intercorrelations among Study Variables 

Measure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  9 10 11
 Self-reported Variables                      
1. School kindness -                    
2.Classroom supportiveness .63** -                  
3. Optimism .40** .43** -                
4. Academic self-efficacy .28** .30** .51** -              
5. Happiness .40** .40** .67** .46** -            
6. Prosocial goals .43** .40** .44** .47** .45**  -          
7. Social responsibility goals .41** .35**  .44** .50** .42** .61** -        
 8. Life satisfaction .45** .41** .65** .43**  .67** .37** .39**`

-

     
Teacher-reported behaviours                      
10. Social skills .26** .20** .26** .24** .21** .26** .40** .25** .67** -  
11. Peer acceptance .16** .19** .26** .22** .24** .20** .17** .23** .41** .53** -

**p < .001. 

 

Citation

 

Binfet, J. T., Gadermann, A. M., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2016). Measuring kindness at school: Psychometric properties of 
a School Kindness Scale for children and adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 53, 111-126

 


Last reviewed shim3/24/2016 5:05:46 PM